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Kindergarten[a] is a preschool educational approach based on playing, singing, practical activities such as drawing, and social interaction as part of the transition from home to school. Such institutions were originally made in the late 18th century in Germany, Bavaria and Alsace to serve children whose parents both worked outside home. The term was coined by German pedagogue Friedrich Fröbel, whose approach globally influenced early-years education. Today, the term is used in many countries to describe a variety of educational institutions and learning spaces for children ranging from 2 to 6 years of age, based on a variety of teaching methods. Children in kindergarten are usually 5-6 years old.




kindergarten



Elizabeth Peabody founded the first English-language kindergarten in the US in 1860.[19] The first free kindergarten in the US was founded in 1870 by Conrad Poppenhusen, a German industrialist and philanthropist, who also established the Poppenhusen Institute. The first publicly financed kindergarten in the US was established in St. Louis in 1873 by Susan Blow.


Canada's first private kindergarten was opened by the Wesleyan Methodist Church in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, in 1870. By the end of the decade, they were common in large Canadian towns and cities.[20][21] In 1882, The country's first public-school kindergartens were established in Berlin, Ontario (modern Kitchener) at the Central School.[22] In 1885, the Toronto Normal School (teacher training) opened a department for kindergarten teaching.[22]


The Australian kindergarten movement emerged in the last decade of the nineteenth century as both a philanthropic and educational endeavour. The first free kindergarten in Australia was established in 1896 in Sydney, New South Wales, by the Kindergarten Union of NSW (now KU Children's Services) led by reformer Maybanke Anderson.[23][24]


American educator Elizabeth Harrison wrote extensively on the theory of early childhood education and worked to enhance educational standards for kindergarten teachers by establishing what became the National College of Education in 1886.


In Afghanistan, children between the ages of 3 and 6 attend kindergartens (Dari: کودکستان; Pashto: وړکتون). Although kindergartens in Afghanistan are not part of the school system, they are often run by the government.


Early childhood development programs were first introduced during the Soviet occupation with the establishment in 1980 of 27 urban preschools, or kodakistan[what language is this?]. The number of preschools grew steadily during the 1980s, peaking in 1990 with more than 270 in Afghanistan. At its peak, there were 2,300 teachers caring for more than 21,000 children in the country. These facilities were an urban phenomenon, mostly in Kabul, and were attached to schools, government offices, or factories. Based on the Soviet model, these early childhood development programs provided nursery care, preschool, and kindergarten for children from 3 months to 6 years of age under the direction of the Department of Labor and Social Welfare.


The vast majority of Afghan families were never exposed to this system, and many of these families were in opposition to these programs due to the belief that it diminishes the central role of the family and inculcates children with Soviet values. With the onset of civil war after the Soviet withdrawal, the number of kindergartens dropped rapidly. By 1995, only 88 functioning facilities serving 2,110 children survived, and the Taliban restrictions on female employment eliminated all of the remaining centers in areas under their control. In 2007, there were about 260 kindergarten/preschool centers serving over 25,000 children. Though every government center is required to have an early childhood center,[citation needed] at present, no governmental policies deal with early childhood and no institutions have either the responsibility or the capacity to provide such services.[citation needed]


In each state of Australia, kindergarten (frequently referred to as kinder or kindy) means something slightly different. In Tasmania, New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory, it is the first year of primary school. In Victoria, kindergarten is a form of preschool and may be referred to interchangeably as preschool or kindergarten. In Victoria, Queensland and Tasmania, the phrase for the first year of primary school is called Prep (short for "preparatory"), which is followed by Year 1.


In Queensland, kindergarten is usually an institution for children around the age of 4 and thus it is the precursor to preschool and primary education. As with Victoria and Tasmania, the first year of primary school is also called Prep, which is then followed by Year 1.


The year preceding the first year of primary school education in Western Australia, South Australia or the Northern Territory is referred to respectively as pre-primary, reception or transition.[25] In Western Australia, the year preceding pre-primary is called kindergarten.


In Bangladesh, the term kindergarten, or KG school (kindergarten school), is used to refer to the schooling children attend from 3 to 6 years of age. The names of the levels are nursery, shishu (children), etc. The view of kindergarten education has changed significantly over time. Almost every rural area now has at least one kindergarten school, with most being run in the Bengali language. They also follow the textbooks published by the National Curriculum and Textbook Board (NCTB) with slight modification, adding some extra books to the syllabus. The grades generally start from nursery (sometimes "play group"), "KG" afterwards, and end with the 5th grade. Separate from the National Education System, kindergarten contributes greatly toward achieving the Millennium Development Goal of universal primary education in Bangladesh.[citation needed]


Schools outside of Ontario and the Northwest Territories generally provide one year of kindergarten, except some private schools which offer junior kindergarten (JK) for 4-year-olds (school before kindergarten is most commonly referred to as preschool). Kindergarten is mandatory in British Columbia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island, and is optional elsewhere.[27] The province of Nova Scotia refers to Kindergarten as Grade Primary. After kindergarten, the child begins grade one.


The province of Ontario and the Northwest Territories provide two years of kindergarten, usually part of an elementary school. Within the French school system in Ontario, junior kindergarten is called maternelle and senior kindergarten is called jardin d'enfants, which is a calque of the German word Kindergarten.


Within the province of Quebec, junior kindergarten is called prématernelle (which is not mandatory), is attended by 4-year-olds, and senior kindergarten (SK) is called maternelle, which is also not mandatory by the age of 5; this class is integrated into primary schools.


In Chile, the term equivalent to kindergarten is educación parvularia, sometimes also called educación preescolar. It is the first level of the Chilean educational system. It meets the needs of boys and girls integrally from birth until their entry to the educación básica (primary education), without being considered compulsory. Generally, schools imparting this level, the JUNJI (National Council of Kindergarten Schools) and other private institutions have the following organization of groups or subcategories of levels:


In China, preschool education, before the child enters formal schooling at 6 years of age, is generally divided into a "nursery" or "preschool" stage and a "kindergarten" (Chinese: 幼儿园; pinyin: yòu'éryuán) stage. These can be two separate institutions, or a single combined one in different areas. Where there are two separate institutions, it is common for the kindergarten to consist of the two upper years, and the preschool to consist of one lower year. Common names for these three years are:


At the end of the 1850s, Uno Cygnaeus, known as the "father of the Finnish primary school", presented the idea of bringing kindergartens to Finland after attending a kindergarten in Hamburg and a seminar training kindergarten teachers during his study trip to Central Europe.[29] As early as 1920, there were about 80 kindergartens in operation across Finland, with a total of about 6,000 children.[29]


Kindergarten activity emphases and background communities vary. In Finland, most kindergartens are society's service to families while some are private. The underlying philosophy may be Montessori or Waldorf education. Preschools often also operate in connection with Finnish kindergartens. Kindergartens can also arrange language immersion programs in different languages. Finnish kindergartens now have an early childhood education plan, and parenting discussions are held with the parents of each child every year. Among OECD countries, Finland has higher-than-average public funding for early childhood education[30][31] and the highest number of staff for children under the age of 3: only four children per adult.[32]


Attendance is voluntary, and usually not free of charge. Preschool children over the age of one are entitled to receive local and affordable day care.[33] Within the federal system, Kindergärten fall under the responsibility of the states,[34] which usually delegate a large share of the responsibility to the municipalities. Due to the subsidiarity principle stipulated by 4 SGB VIII [de], there are a multitude of operators, from municipalities, churches and welfare societies to parents' initiatives and profit-based corporations. Many Kindergärten follow a certain educational approach, such as Montessori, Reggio Emilia, "Berliner Bildungsprogramm" or Waldorf; forest kindergartens are well established. Most Kindergärten are subsidised by the community councils, with the fees depending on the income of the parents. 041b061a72


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