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Wasted


Michael Moreci (Roche Limit, Wonder Woman, Black Star Renegades) and Hayden Sherman (The Few, Cold War, John Carter: The End) have thrown Philip K. Dick in a blender with Preacher. Take a sip and get wasted.




wasted



Left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony reduces myocardial efficiency because work performed by one segment is wasted by stretching other segments. In the present study, we introduce a novel noninvasive clinical method that quantifies wasted energy as the ratio between work consumed during segmental lengthening (wasted work) divided by work during segmental shortening. The wasted work ratio (WWR) principle was studied in 6 anesthetized dogs with left bundle branch block (LBBB) and in 28 patients with cardiomyopathy, including 12 patients with LBBB and 10 patients with cardiac resynchronization therapy. Twenty healthy individuals served as controls. Myocardial strain was measured by speckle tracking echocardiography, and LV pressure (LVP) was measured by micromanometer and a previously validated noninvasive method. Segmental work was calculated by multiplying strain rate and LVP to get instantaneous power, which was integrated to give work as a function of time. A global WWR was also calculated. In dogs, WWR by estimated LVP and strain showed a strong correlation (r = 0.94) and good agreement with WWR by the LV micromanometer and myocardial segment length by sonomicrometry. In patients, noninvasive WWR showed a strong correlation (r = 0.96) and good agreement with WWR using the LV micromanometer. Global WWR was 0.09 0.03 in healthy control subjects, 0.36 0.16 in patients with LBBB, and 0.21 0.09 in cardiomyopathy patients without LBBB. Cardiac resynchronization therapy reduced global WWR from 0.36 0.16 to 0.17 0.07 (P


  • As prevention efforts ramp up in the U.S., there is a need for evidence to inform the approaches taken, as well as baseline data to assist in tracking progress. We performed a nationally representative consumer survey aimed at addressing research questions including:How aware are Americans of wasted food generally, and of food they waste?

  • What attitudes shape their decisions about purchasing and discarding food?

  • What would motivate them to waste less?

  • To what extent do they perform behaviors known to increase or decrease waste?

  • What retail and restaurant industry actions to reduce consumer-level waste of food are supported by consumers?

Surveys in several countries have addressed these topics, but due to differences in culture and society, food system, infrastructure, policy, and geography, we cannot presume how these findings might translate to the U.S. context. This survey identifies points of similarity and difference with that work, and highlights areas in need of additional in-depth research.


Based on what is known about wasted food in the U.S., it is clear that respondents as a group are substantially underreporting their waste levels, and they may also be overreporting their effort levels. It is well-known that surveys are an ineffective tool for assessing waste levels[3], and thus our questions regarding the amount of food wasted were asked only with the intent of understanding respondent perceptions. In-depth research using trash sorting and diaries is needed to gain insights into actual waste, while qualitative and other methods will be more effective for understanding the underlying social phenomena. It is possible that in comparing their own waste to national figures, respondents commonly used judgment heuristics involving anchoring their estimates to known figures. For example, the estimate that 40% of all food is wasted would lead most people to say that they waste less than that [2,3,28]. Regarding effort, we asked only a general question about the amount of effort invested, aimed at drawing a broad-brush picture of respondent perceptions; it would be valuable for follow-up research to ask detailed questions about effort. This survey does not enable assessing the extent to which the above findings reflect a lack of awareness, aspirational reporting, cognitive dissonance, social desirability bias, or biases due to judgment heuristics.


In addressing consumer-level waste of food, it is easy to assume a personal responsibility frame, with most efforts focused on education and communication[4]. Extensive evidence from public health and related fields shows limitations of the individual responsibility frame [42], and highlights that shame and blame can be counterproductive [43]. Consumer education and behavior change interventions must be complemented by approaches making use of entrepreneurial, policy, economic, behavioral economic, and other tools. Indeed, our findings suggest consumer interest in and acceptability of several changes that could be made by the food industry at little cost or even at profit, including smaller packages, donating food, smaller portions, discounts for less aesthetic foods, and making food to order. Behavioral economics approaches would additionally be valuable, to address shopping patterns and their influence on the kinds and amounts of food purchased. There is a need for additional research to understand the tradeoffs for consumers in increased unit price of smaller packages versus cost of food that would otherwise be wasted. While more environmentally-friendly packaging is always desirable, some evidence suggests that for many foods and packaging types, the environmental impacts of extra packaging needed to create smaller sizes may be less than that of the food that would be wasted, although again, additional research would be valuable [44,45].


Today, WWF and Tesco publish Driven to Waste, a new report that quantifies the total amount of food lost on farms globally, revealing an estimated 2.5 billion tonnes of food2 goes uneaten around the world each year. That is an increase of approximately 1.2 billion tonnes on the established estimates of 1.3 billion tonnes wasted each year. These new estimates indicate that of all the food grown, approximately 40 per cent goes uneaten, which is higher than the previously estimated figure of 33% 3.


Compounding the pressure from continued global agricultural resource-use expansion, 4.4 million km2 of agricultural land and 760km3 of water are used to produce the 1.2 billion tonnes of food that are lost before, during and after harvest or diverted to other uses such as animal feed and biofuel. This equates to a landmass larger than the Indian subcontinent and water volume equivalent to 304 million Olympic swimming pools - and this does not include the additional resources used to produce food that is wasted further down the supply chain.


3 - This is an indicative estimate based on the 1.2 billion tonnes of food loss on farms calculated within the Driven to Waste report, the 931 million tonnes wasted in retail, food service and consumer homes, and calculations to estimate losses occurring in the post farmgate transport, storage, manufacturing and processing stages.


The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, which keeps tabs on what's grown and eaten around the globe, estimates that one-third of food produced for human consumption worldwide is annually lost or wasted along the chain that stretches from farms to processing plants, marketplaces, retailers, food-service operations, and our collective kitchens.


At a banquet hall in Shanghai, overflowing seafood plates represent just one of 13 courses. Weddings, where abundance is the hallmark of a good host, are among the worst sources of food waste in China, and uneaten food from all cafeterias and restaurants has increased along with urban incomes. An estimated 18 billion pounds of protein are wasted annually in China.


Fortunately, Italy is doing its best to combat wasted food. In 2013, the government created a national Food Waste Prevention Plan to tackle waste. In 2016, the Italian Senate passed a more specific bill that offers incentives to businesses who donate food to charities and funds programs to tackle food waste in schools and hospitals. Meanwhile, public opinion is firmly against waste, as roughly half of Italians believe too much food is wasted. 041b061a72


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